Glossary, acronyms, abbreviations

Glossary

Communication pipe

The pipe connecting the reticulation system to the user, typically running from the reticulation main to the user meter or stand boundary.

Distribution main

A distribution main refers to a large diameter pipe carrying water from a bulk source to reticulation network.

Greywater

The untreated household wastewater from all domestic processes other than toilet flushing. It therefore includes water from baths, showers, kitchens, hand wash basins and water used for laundry. Greywater from kitchen sinks and dishwashing machines are excluded as a potential resource for the purpose of this guideline.

Infrastructure Leakage Index

Infrastructure Leakage Index (ILI) is the generally accepted best-practice key performance indicator for quantifying real losses.

Potable water

Water of a quality that is compliant with the standards set out in SANS 241-1 South African National Standard – Drinking Water, Part 1: Microbiological, physical, aesthetic and chemical determinants.

Reclaimed water

Wastewater that is reused before it is returned to the natural water cycle. The process typically involves the treatment of sewage to the standard required for reuse, including potable standards.

Reticulation

Reticulation refers to the network of pipes that supply water to the user.

Rising main

The pipe located on the discharge side of a pump.

Unit demand

Average daily demand in kL/d for a stand, household or per capita, depending on the context.

Water conservation

The minimisation of loss or waste, the care and protection of water resources and the efficient and effective use of water.70

Water Demand Management

The adaptation and implementation of a strategy by a water institution or user to influence the water demand and usage of water in order to meet any of the following objectives: economic efficiency, social development, social equity, environmental protection, sustainability of water supply and services, and political acceptability.

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Water hammer

A pressure wave that occurs when pressurised flowing water is subjected to a sudden stop or change in direction. In distribution systems it is commonly the result of a sudden valve closure.

Water Services Authority

The municipality responsible for ensuring access/provision of water and sanitation services within its area of jurisdiction.

Water Services Provider

Provider of water and sanitation services under contract to a Water Services Authority.

Acronyms and abbreviations

AADD Average Annual Daily Demand
BCI Business/Commercial/Industrial
CARL Current Annual Real Losses
CBD Central Business District
CCPP Calcium Carbonate Precipitation Potential
DMA District Metered Area
DWS Department of Water and Sanitation
EIA Environmental Impact Assessment
FAR Floor Area Ratio
HDPE High-density polyethylene
ILI Infrastructure Leakage Index
ISO International Organization for Standardization
IWRM Integrated Water Resource Management
NEMA National Environmental Management Act
NWRS2 Second National Water Resource Strategy
NW&SMP National Water and Sanitation Master Plan
PE Polyethylene
PF Peak Factor
PMZ Pressure Management Zone
PP polypropylene
PRV Pressure-Reducing Valve
PVC Polyvinyl Chloride
PVC-M Modified Polyvinyl Chloride
PVC-O Bi-Orientated Polyvinyl Chloride
PVC-U Unplasticised Polyvinyl Chloride
SABS South African Bureau of Standards

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SANS South African National Standard
SAPPMA South African Plastic Pipe Manufacturers Association
SuDS Sustainable Drainage System
TAADD Total Average Annual Daily Demand
UARL Unavoidable Annual Real Losses
WC/WDM Water Conservation/Water Demand Management
WRC Water Research Commission
WSA Water Services Authority
WSD Water Sensitive Design
WSDP Water Services Development Plan
WSUD Water Sensitive Urban Design

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Endnotes

  1. SANS 10400-The application of the National Building Regulations (NBR) is available for purchase from the South African Bureau of Standards (SABS) at https://www.sabs.co.za/
  2. SANS 241-1 South African National Standard – Drinking Water, Part 1: Microbiological, physical, aesthetic and chemical determinants is available for purchase from the South African Bureau of Standards (SABS) at https://www.sabs.co.za/
  3. International Water Association (IWA). n.d. The IWA Principles for Water Wise Cities. International Water Association, London.
  4. Global Water Partnership. 2017. The Need for an Integrated Approach. https://www.gwp.org/en/About/why/the-need-for-an-integrated-approach/
  5. Wong, T.H.F. 2006. Water sensitive urban design-the journey thus far. Australasian Journal of Water Resources. 10(3),213–222. DOI: 10.1080/13241583.2006.11465296.
  6. University of Cape Town. 2018. UCT Urban Water Management: Water Sensitive Design. http://www.uwm.uct.ac.za/
  7. Armitage, N., Fisher-Jeffes, L., Carden, K., Winter, K., Naidoo, V., Spiegel, A., Mauck, B., Coulson, D. 2014. Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) for South Africa: Framework and Guidelines. WRC Report No. TT 588/14. Water Research Commission, Pretoria.
  8. Armitage, N., Vice, M., Fisher-Jeffes, L., Winter, K., Spiegel, A., Dunstan, J. 2013. The South African Guidelines for Sustainable Drainage Systems. Report TT558/13. Water Research Commission, Pretoria.
  9. Boulenouar, J., Gibson, J. 2015. Asset management in rural South Africa. A case study of Amatole and Chris Hani district municipalities. IRC, The Hague
  10. Swartz, C.D., Thompson, P., Maduray, P., Offringa, G., Mwiinga, G. 2013. WATCOST: Manual for a Costing Model for Drinking Water Supply Systems. WRC Report No. TT 552/13. Water Research Commission, Pretoria.
  11. Van Zyl, F., Manus, A., Pensulo, E. 2008. Water Services Infrastructure Asset Management for Municipal Managers. Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, Pretoria.
  12. Adam, A.G. 2016. Urbanization and the Struggle for Land in the Peri-Urban Areas of Ethiopia. Proceedings of the Annual Bank Conference on Africa. The World Bank Group, Oxford.
  13. Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF). 2004. Guidelines on Protecting Groundwater from Contamination. Toolkit for Water Services. Number 3.4. Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, Pretoria.
  14. Nel, J., Nel, M., Dustay, S., Siwawa, S., Mbali, S. 2014. Towards a Guideline for the Delineation of Groundwater Protection Zones in Complex Aquifer Setting. WRC Report No. 2288/1/14. Water Research Commission, Pretoria.
  15. South African National Biodiversity Institute. https://www.sanbi.org
  16. SANS 10090 South African National Standard-Community Protection against Fire is available for purchase from the South African Bureau of Standards (SABS) at https://www.sabs.co.za/
  17. Swartz, C.D., Van der Merwe-Botha, M., Freese, S.D. 2013. Energy Efficiency in the South African Water Industry: A Compendium of Best Practices and Case Studies. WRC Report No. TT565/13. Water Research Commission, Pretoria.
  18. SANS 241-1 South African National Standard-Drinking Water, Part 1: Microbiological, physical, aesthetic and chemical determinants.
  19. Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF). 1996. South African Water Quality Guidelines. Volume 1: Domestic Use. Second Edition. Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, Pretoria.
  20. Smet, J., Van Wijk, C. (eds.). 2002. Small Community Water Supplies: Technology, People and Partnership. Technical paper Series 40. IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre, Delft.

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  1. Van Zyl, K.E. 2011. Introduction to Integrated Water Meter Management. WRC Report No TT490/11. Water Research Commission, Pretoria
  2. Adapted from Van Zyl, 2011.
  3. Department of Water and Sanitation (DWS). 2017. National Norms and Standards for Domestic Water and Sanitation Services. Government Gazette No. 41100, Notice 982 of 8 September 2017. Department of Water and Sanitation, Pretoria.
  4. Heymans, C., Eales, K., Franceys, R. 2014. The Limits and Possibilities of Prepaid Water in Urban Africa: Lessons from the Field. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank, Washington DC.
  5. Seago, C.J., McKenzie, R.S. 2007. An Assessment of Non-Revenue Water in South Africa. WRC Report No TT 300/07. Water Research Commission, Pretoria.
  6. Available at: http://www.who.int/water _ sanitation _ health/hygiene/om/linkingchap3.pdf
  7. Foster, S., Hirata, R., Gomes, D., D’Elia, M., Paris, M. 2002. Groundwater Quality Protection: a Guide for Water Utilities, Municipal Authorities and Environment Agencies. World Bank, Washington, D.C.
  8. Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF). 2004. Groundwater Protection-Guidelines for Protecting Springs.Toolkit for Water Services. Number 3.2. Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, Pretoria.
  9. Available at: http://www.who.int/water _ sanitation _ health/hygiene/om/linkingchap3.pdf
  10. OXFAM. 2008. Spring protection. Oxfam Technical Briefing Notes. Oxfam, Great Britain.
  11. Rydbeck, B.V., Guapi, R. n.d. Improved Techniques for Spring Protection Developed by Rural Ecuadorian Communities. http://www.lifegivingwaterinternational.org/uploads/3/8/2/3/38233329/2013 _ spring _ protection.pdf.
  12. Smet and Van Wijk. 2002.
  13. SANS 10299-4:2003 South African National Standard-Development, maintenance and management of groundwater resources – Part4: Test Pumping of water boreholes is available for purchase from the South African Bureau of Standards (SABS) at https://www.sabs.co.za/
  14. Christian Ruz [CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0)], from Wikipedia Commons
  15. Mpheya, J.N., Pienaar, J.J., Galey-Lacaux, Held, G., Turner, C.R. 2004. Precipitation Chemistry in Semi-Arid Areas of Southern Africa: A Case Study of a Rural and an Industrial Site. Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, 47: 1–24.
  16. Mpheya, J.N., Pienaar, J.J., Galey-Lacaux, Held, G., Turner, C.R. 2006. Precipitation Chemistry and Wet Deposition in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, 53: 169–183.
  17. Armitage et al. 2013.
  18. Duncker L., Lindeque, M. 2012. Assessment of Rainwater Harvesting at Kharkams High School in Kharkams, Kamiesberg Local Municipality, Northern Cape. CSIR report, GWDMS 225420. CSIR, Pretoria.
  19. Carden, K. 2018. Lead author of the as yet unpublished Guidelines for Greywater Use and Management in South Africa. WRC project K5/2592. Personal communication.
  20. Carden, K. 2018.
  21. Swartz, C.D., Du Plessis, J.A., Burger, A.J., Offringa, J. 2006. A desalination guide for South African Municipal Engineers. WaterSA, 32(5): 641-647
  22. Turner, K.N., Naidoo, K., Theron, J.G., Broodryk, J. 2015. Investigation into the cost and operation of Southern African desalination and water reuse plants. WRC Report No. TT 638/15. Water Research Commission, Pretoria.
  23. Swartz, C.D., Genthe, B., Menge, J.G., Coomans, C.J., Offringa, G. 2015. Direct Reclamation of Municipal Wastewater for Drinking Purposes – Volume 1 (Guidance on Monitoring, Management and Communication of Water Quality), WRC Report No TT 641/15. Water Research Commission, Pretoria.

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  1. Muanda, C., Cousins, D., Lagardien, A., Owen, G., Goldin, J. 2017. Direct Reclamation of Municipal Wastewater for Drinking Purposes-Volume 2 (Investigation into institutional and social factors influencing public acceptance of reclaimed water for potable uses in South Africa). WRC Report No. TT 734/17. Water Research Commission, Pretoria.
  2. SANS 241-1 South African National Standard-Drinking Water, Part 1: Microbiological, physical, aesthetic and chemical determinants.
  3. SANS 241-1 South African National Standard-Drinking Water, Part 1: Microbiological, physical, aesthetic and chemical determinants.
  4. Van Duuren, F.A. (Ed). 1997. Water Purification Works Design. WRC Report No. TT92-97. Water Research Commission, Pretoria
  5. Voortman, W.J., Reddy, C.D. 1997. Package Water Treatment Plant Selection. WRC Report No. 450/1/97. Water Research Commission, Pretoria.
  6. SANS 241-1 South African National Standard-Drinking Water, Part 1: Microbiological, physical, aesthetic and chemical determinants.
  7. Okun, D.A., Schultz, C.R. 1983. Practical water treatment for communities in developing countries. Aqua, No.1: 23-26.
  8. SANS 241-1 South African National Standard-Drinking Water, Part 1: Microbiological, physical, aesthetic and chemical determinants
  9. Schutte, F. (Ed). 2006. Handbook for the Operation of Water Treatment Works. WRC Report No. TT 265/06. Water Research Commission, Pretoria.
  10. Van Duuren, 1997
  11. Voortman, W.J., Reddy, C.D. 1997.
  12. Korlam, S., Thompson, P., Rajagopaul, R. 2016. Package plants for drinking water treatment: Technology survey, operation and maintenance aspects. WRC Report No. TT 665/16. Water Research Commission, Pretoria.
  13. Van Duuren, 1997.
  14. Herselman, J.E. 2013. Guideline for the Utilisation and Disposal of Water Treatment Residues. WRC Report No. TT 559/13. Water Research Commission, Pretoria.
  15. Du Plessis, J.A., Burger, A.J., Swartz, C.D., Musee, N. 2006. A Desalination Guide for South African Municipal Engineers. WRC Report No. TT 266/06. Water Research Commission and Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, Pretoria.
  16. Van Zyl, 2011.
  17. Schutte, 2006.
  18. SANS 10102-2 South African National Standard, Selection of pipes for buried pipelines Part 2: Rigid Pipes is available for purchase from the South African Bureau of Standards (SABS) at https://www.sabs.co.za/.
  19. SANS 966-1 South African National Standard, Components of pressure pipe systems – Part 1: Unplasticized poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC-U) pressure pipe systems is available for purchase from the South African Bureau of Standards (SABS) at https://www.sabs.co.za/.
  20. SANS 966-2 South African National Standard, Components of pressure pipe systems – Part 2: Modified poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC-M) pressure pipe systems is available for purchase from the South African Bureau of Standards (SABS) at https://www.sabs.co.za/.
  21. SANS 1283 South African National Standard, Modified poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC-M) pressure pipe and couplings for cold water services in underground mining is available for purchase from the South African Bureau of Standards (SABS) at https://www.sabs.co.za/.
  22. SANS 16422/ISO 16422 Pipes and joints made of oriented unplasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC-O) for the conveyance of water under pressure-Specifications is available for purchase from the South African Bureau of Standards (SABS) at https://www.sabs.co.za/.

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  1. Southern African Plastic Pipe Manufacturers Association (SAPPMA). www.sappma.co.za
  2. SANS 4427-1/ISO 4427-1. South African National Standard, Plastics piping systems-Polyethylene (PE) pipes and fittings for water supply is available for purchase from the South African Bureau of Standards (SABS) at https://www.sabs.co.za/.
  3. SANS 21307/ISO 21307. South African National Standard, Plastics pipes and fittings-Butt fusion jointing procedures for polyethylene (PE) pipes and fittings used in the construction of gas and water distribution systems is available for purchase from the South African Bureau of Standards (SABS) at https://www.sabs.co.za/.
  4. Southern African Plastic Pipe Manufacturers Association (SAPPMA). www.sappma.co.za
  5. Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF). 2004. Water Conservation and Water Demand Management Strategy for the Water Services Sector. Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, Pretoria.

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